Castro IA, Yang Y, Gnazzo V, Kim DH, Van Dyken SJ, López CB (2023) Murine Parainfluenza Virus Persists in Lung Innate Immune Cells Sustaining Chronic Lung Pathology.  Submitted

Hackbart MS and López CB. (2023) S RNA Intergenic Deletions Drive Viral Interference during Arenavirus Infections. bioRxiv 2023.10.31.564889; doi: Submitted

Musa AO*, Faber SR*, Forrest K, Smith KP, Sengupta S and López CB (2024) Identification of distinct genotypes in circulating RSV A strains based on variants on the virus replication-associated genes Journal of Virology, In Press.

*authors contributed equally

Gonzalez-Aparicio, LJ. and López CB (2024)(Review). Selection of non-standard viral genomes during the evolution of RNA viruses: A virus survival strategy or a pesky inconvenience? Advances in Virus Research. Vol. 119.

Li X, Yang Y, López CB (2024) Indiscriminate activities of different Henipavirus polymerase complex proteins allow for efficient minigenome replication in hybrid systems. bioRxiv 2024.03.18.585482; doi: Journal of Virology, DOI:

Gonzalez-Aparicio LJ, Yang Y, Hackbart MS, and López CB (2023).Copy-back viral genomes induce a cellular stress response that interferes with viral protein expression without affecting antiviral immunity  PLoS Biology, Nov 20;21(11):e3002381.

Achouri E, Felt SA, Hackbart MS, Rivera-Espinal NS and López CB. (2023) VODKA2: A fast and accurate method to detect non-standard viral genomes from large RNA-seq datasets RNA, Oct 27:rna.079747.123. doi: 10.1261/rna.079747.123. 

Fisher DG, Gazzo V, Holthausen D and López CB. (2022) Non-standard viral genome-derived RNA activates TLR3 and type I IFN signaling to induce cDC1-dependent CD8+ T-cell responses during vaccination in mice. Vaccine 40: 7270-7279. 

Felt SA, Achouri E, Faber SR and López CB (2022). Accumulation of copy-back viral genomes during respiratory syncytial virus infection is preceded by diversification of the copy-back genome population followed by selection., Viral Evol. 8(2):1-12.

Hiller BE, Yin Y, Perng Y, Castro I, Fox LE, Locke MC, Monte KJ, López CB, Ornitz D and Lenschow DJ (2022) Fibroblast growth factor-9 expression in airway epithelial cells amplifies the type I interferon response and alters influenza A virus pathogenesis. PLoS Pathogens, 18(6): e1010228. ppat.1010228

Gonzalez Aparicio LJ, López CB and Felt SA  (2022) (Review) A Virus is a  Community: Diversity within Negative Sense RNA Virus  Populations. MMBR, . DOI:

Felt SA and López CB (2022) Harnessing defective viruses to fight infections. Med, 3 1-2

Felt SA,  Sun Y, Jozwik A, Para A, Habibi MS, Nickle D, Anderson L, Achouri E, Feemster K, Cardenas AM, Turi KN, Chang M, Hartert TV, Sengupta S, Chiu C, and López CB (2021). ­­Detection of Respiratory syncytial virus defective genomes in nasal secretions is associated with distinct clinical outcomes. Nat. Microbiol.,

Genoyer E, Kulej K, Hung CT, Thibault PA, Azarm K, Takimoto T, Garcia BA, Lee B, Lakdawala S, Weitzman WD and López CB (2020). ­­­The Viral Polymerase Complex Mediates the Interaction of vRNPs with Recycling Endosomes During SeV Assembly. mBio,

Zhang T, Yin C, Boyd DF, Quarato G, Ingram JP, Shubina M, Ragan KB, Ishizuka T, Tummers B, Rodriguez D, Xue J, Kaiser WJ, López CB, Xu Y, Upton JW, Thomas PG, Green DR, and Balachandran S (2020). Influenza virus Z-RNAs induce ZBP1-mediated necroptosis. Cell 181, 1115–1129.

García GL, Valenzuela A, Manzoni T, Vaughan A, and López CB (2020) Distinct chronic post-viral lung disease upon infection with influenza or parainfluenza viruses differentially impact superinfection outcome. Am. J. Pathol. 190/3.

Sengupta S, Tang S, Devine J, Anderson S, Nayak S, Zhang C, Valenzuela A, Fisher D, Grant G, López CB, and FitzGerald G.  (2019)  Circadian control of lung inflammation in influenza infection. Nat Communications,

Vignuzzi M and López CB. (2019) (Review) Defective viral genomes are key drivers of the virus-host interaction.  Nat Microbiol. doi: 10.1038/s41564-019-0465-y

Genoyer E and López CB. (2019) ­­­­­­­­­(Review) The Impact of Defective Viruses on Infection and Immunity. Annu Rev Virol.  doi: 10.1146/annurev-virology-092818-015652

Sun Y, Kim EJ, Felt SA, Taylor LJ, Agarwal D,  Grant GR, and López CB. (2019) ­­­­­­­­­A specific sequence in the genome of respiratory syncytial virus regulates the generation of copy-back defective viral genomes [Preprint:].  PloS Pathogens, 15(4): e1007707.

López CB (2019) Unexpected lessons from the neglected: how defective viral genomes became important again. Research Matters, PLoS Pathogens, 15(1):e1007450.

Genoyer E and López CB (2019) Distinct intracellular distribution of full-length and defective viral RNA genomes drives functional heterogeneity during infection. J. Virol. DOI: 10.1128/JVI.01579-18. Publication link

Fisher DG, Coppock GM, and López CB (2018) Virus-derived immunostimulatory RNA induces type I IFN-dependent antibodies and T-cell responses during vaccination. Vaccine, 36(28):4039-4045. doi: 10.1016/j.vaccine.2018.05.100. Publication link.

Manzoni TB and López CB. (2018) ­(Review) Defective (Interfering) Viral Genomes Re-Explored: Impact on Antiviral Immunity and Virus Persistence. Future Virology. Published online: DOI: 10.2217/fvl-2018-0021.

Xu J, Sun Y, Li Y, Ruthel G, Weiss SR, Raj, A, Beiting D and López CB. (2017) Replication Defective Viral Genomes Exploit A Cellular Pro-Survival Mechanism To Establish Paramyxovirus Persistence.  [Preprint: BioRxiv, doi:]. Nature Communications  Oct 6;8(1):799. doi: 10.1038/s41467-017-00909-6. Publication link.

Kenny A, Dowdle JA, Bozzacco L, McMichael TM, St. Gelais C, Panfil AR, Sun Y, Anderson MZ, Green PL, López CB, Rosenberg BR, Wu L, and Yount JS. Human Genetic Determinants of Viral Diseases (2017) (Review), Annual Reviews of Genetics. doi/abs/10.1146/annurev-genet-120116-023425. Publication link.

Muallem G, Wagage S, Sun Y, DeLong JH, Valenzuela A, Harms Pritchard G, Christian, DA, Fang, Q, Buza E, Jain D, Elloso MM, López CB#, and Hunter CA#. (2017) IL-27 Limits Type 2 Immunopathology Following Parainfluenza Virus Infection. PLOS Pathogens 13(1):e1006173. doi: 10.1371/journal.ppat.1006173. #Senior authors. Publication link.

Philip NH, DeLaney A, Peterson LW, Santos-Marerro M, Grier JT, Sun Y, Wynosky-Dolfi MA, Zwack EE, Hu B, Olson TM, Rongvaux A, Pope SD, López CB, Oberst A, Beiting DP, Henao-Mejia J, and Brodsky IE. (2016) Activity of Uncleaved Caspase-8 Controls Anti-bacterial Immune Defense and TLR-Induced Cytokine Production Independent of Cell Death PLOS Pathogens 12(10): e1005910. doi:10.1371/ journal.ppat.1005910. Publication link.

Sun Y and López CB. (2016) The innate immune response to RSV: Advances in our understanding of critical viral and host factors (Review). Vaccine 

Nogusa S, Thapa RJ, Dillon CP, Oguin III TH, Ingram JP, Kosoff R, Sharma S, Sturm O, Verbist K, Slifker MJ, Gough P, Bertin P, Kaiser WJ, Mocarski ES, López CB, Thomas PG, Oberst A, Green DR, and Balachandran S. (2016). RIPK3 activates parallel pathways of MLKL-driven necroptosis and FADD-mediated apoptosis to protect against influenza A virus. Cell Host & Microbes pii: S1931-3128(16)30207-4. doi: 10.1016/j.chom.2016.05.011. [Epub ahead of print] PMID: 27321907. PubMed link

Sun Y and López CB. (2016) Respiratory syncytial virus infection in mice and detection of viral genomes in the lung using RT-qPCR. Bio-protocol 6(10): e1819.

Sun Y and López CB. (2016) Preparation of respiratory syncytial virus stocks and purification of defective viral particles. Bio-protocol 6(10): e1820.

Penkala I, Wang J, Syrett CM, López CB, and Anguera MC. (2016) LNCRHOXF1: a long noncoding RNA from the X-chromosome that suppresses viral response genes during development of the early human placenta. Mol. Cell. Biol. pii: MCB.01098-15. [Epub ahead of print].  PubMed link

Xue J, Chambers BS, Hensley SE and López CB. (2016) Propagation and characterization of influenza virus stocks that are not loaded with defective viral genomes and hemagglutinin mutations. Front. Microbiol. 7:326 doi: 10.3389/fmicb.2016.0032. PubMed link

Xu J, Mercado-López X, Grier J, Kim WK, Chun L, Irvine EB, Del Toro Y, Kell A, Hur S, Gale M, Raj A, and López CB. (2015) Identification of a Natural Viral RNA Motif that Facilitates Viral Recognition by RIG-I-Like Receptors. mBio 6(5):e01265-15. doi:10.1128/mBio.01265-15. PubMed link

Sun Y, Jain D, Koziol-White CJ, Genoyer E, Gilbert M, Tapia K, Panettieri RA, Hodinka RL, and López CB. (2015) Immunostimulatory Defective Viral Genomes Promote Strong Innate Antiviral Responses During Respiratory Syncytial Virus Infection in Mice and Humans. PLOS Pathogens. 11(9): e1005122. doi:10.1371/journal.ppat.1005122  PubMed link

Benitez AA, Panis M, Xue J, Shim JV, Varble A, Frick AL, López CB, Sachs D, and tenOever BR. (2015) In vivo RNAi screening identifies MDA5 as a contributor to the cellular defense against influenza A virus. Cell Reports, published online on 11 June, 2015doi:10.1016/j.celrep.2015.05.032. PubMed link.

López CB. (2014) Defective viral genomes: critical danger signals of viral infections (Review). Gem, J. Virol., doi:10.1128/JVI.00556-14. PubMed link.

Kim WK, Jain D, Sánchez MD, Koziol-White C, Matthews K, Ge M, Haczku A, Panettieri RA, Frieman MB, and López CB. (2014) Deficiency of Melanoma Differentiation-associated protein 5 results in Exacerbated Chronic Post-Viral Lung Inflammation. Am. J. Respir. Crit. Care Med. 189(4):437-48. doi: 10.1164/rccm.201307-1338OC. PMID: 24417465. PubMed link.

Tapia K, Kim WK, Sun Y, Mercado-López X, Dunay E, Wise M, Adu M, and López CB. (2013) Defective Viral Genomes Arising In Vivo Provide Critical Danger Signals for the Triggering of Lung Antiviral Immunity. PLOS Pathogens 9(10): e1003703. doi:10.1371/journal.ppat.1003703. * Featured Article. *Co-first authors. PubMed link

Mercado-López X, Cotter CR, Kim WK, Muñoz L, Sun Y, Tapia K, and López CB. (2013) Highly Immunostimulatory RNA Derived from a Sendai Virus Defective Viral Genome. Vaccine. 2013 Oct 4. pii: S0264-410X(13)01294-2. doi: 10.1016/j.vaccine.2013.09.040. [Epub ahead of print] PMID: 2409987. PubMed link.

Hermesh T, Moran TM, Jain. D, and López CB. (2012) Granulocyte colony-stimulating factor protects mice during respiratory virus infections. PLOS One 7(5): e37334. doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0037334. PMID: 22615983 PMCID: PMC3353936. PubMed link.

2011 and Before

Harty RN, Schmitt AN, Bouamr F, López CB and Krummenacher C. (2011) Virus Budding/Host Interactions. Advances in Virology-Editorial. EPub doi:10.1155/2011/963192.

Neil RC, Tapia KA, Dandapani A, MacArthur BD, López C, Ma’ayan A. (2011). Stochastic model of virus and defective interfering particle spread across mammalian cells with immune response. Q-bio.PE, arXiv:1108.4901. Publication link.

Cotter C, Kim WK, Nguyen M, Yount J, López CB, Blaho, and Moran TM. (2011) The Virion Host Shut-off (vhs) Protein of HSV-1 Blocks the Replication-Independent Activation of NF-κB in Dendritic Cells. J. Virol. Sept 21, EPub Ahead of Print. PMID: 2193765. PubMed link.

López CB. (2011) Systemic Responses During Local Viral Infections: Type I IFNs Sound the Alarm (Review). Curr. Opin. Immunol 23(4):495-9. PMID: 21752617 PMCID: PMC3163724. PubMed link.

Zhang J, Zhang Y, Dutta D, Argaw AT, Bonnamain V, Seto J, Braun DA, Zameer A, Hayot F, López CB, Raine CS and John GR (2011) Pro- and Anti-apoptotic Actions of Stat1 versus Stat3 Underlie Neuroprotective and Immunoregulatory Functions of Interleukin-11. J. Immunol. 187:1129-1141. PMID: 21709156. PubMed link.

Leung LW, Park M, Martinez O, Valmas C, López CB, and Basler CF. (2011) The Ebolavirus VP35 Protein Suppresses Interferon Production from Conventional but not Plasmacytoid Dendritic Cells. Immunology and Cell Biology. EPub ahead of print. 25 Jan. PMID: 21263462. PubMed link.

Hu J, Nudelman G, Shimoni Y, Kumar M, Ding Y, López C, Hayot F, Wetmur JG, Sealfon SC. (2011) Role of Cell-to-Cell Variability in Activating a Positive Feedback Antiviral Response in Human Dendritic Cells. PLOS One. 2011 Feb 8;6(2):e16614. PubMed link.

Hermesh T, Moltedo B, López CB and Moran TM. (2010) Buying Time—The Immune System Determinants of the Incubation Period to Respiratory Viruses-Review. Viruses 2:2541-2558. PMID: 21994630 PMCID: PMC3185581. PubMed link.

Yount JS, Moltedo B, Yang Y, Charron G, Moran TM, López CB and Hang HH. (2010) Palmitoylome profiling reveals S-palmitoylation-dependent anti-viral activity of IFITM3. Nature Chem. Biol. 6:610-614. PMID: 20601941 *Evaluated in the Faculty of 1000 website. PubMed link.

Hermesh T, Moltedo B, Moran TM and López CB. (2010) Antiviral Instruction of Bone Marrow Leukocytes during Respiratory Viral Infections. Cell Host & Microbe.7:343-353. PMID: 20478536. PMCID: PMC2874206 * Featured Article and Previewed. PubMed link.

Cotter C, Nguyen ML, López CB, Blaho JA and Moran TM. (2010) Virion-Associated Vhs Protein Blocks the Activation of Human Dendritic Cells during a Productive HSV-1 Infection. PLOS One. 5:e8684. PMCID: PMC2823768. PubMed link.

Gurfein TB, Zhang Y, López CB, Argaw AT, Zameer A, Moran TM and John GR. Interleukin-11 Regulates Autoimmune Demyelination (2009). J. Immunol. 183:4229-4240. PMID: 19734214. PubMed link.

Moltedo B, López CB, Pazos M, Becker MI, Hermesh T and Moran TM. (2009) Cutting Edge: stealth Influenza Virus Replication Precedes the Initiation of Adaptive Immunity. J. Immunol. 183:3569-3573. PMID: 19717515. PubMed link. 

Escribese MM, Kraus T, Rhee E, Fernandez-Sesma A, López CB and Moran TM. (2008) Estrogen Inhibits Dendritic Cell Maturation to dsRNA Viruses. Blood. 112:475-84. PMID: 18802009, PMCID: PMC2597128. PubMed link.

Yount JS, Gitlin L, Moran TM and López CB. (2008) MDA5 Participates in the Detection of Paramyxovirus Infection and is Essential for the Early Activation of DCs in Response to SeV DI Particles. J. Immunol. 180:4910-4919. PMID: 18354215. PubMed link. 

Yount JS, Moran TM and López CB. (2007) Cytokine-Independent Upregulation of MDA5 in Viral Infection. J. Virol. 81:7316-7319. PMID: 17475649, PMCID: PMC1933291. PubMed link. 

Yount JS, Kraus T, Horvath C, Moran TM and López CB. (2006) A Novel Role for Defective Interfering Particles in Enhancing Dendritic Cell Maturation. J. Immunol. 177:4503-4513. PMID: 16982887. PubMed link.

Book Chapters (Peer-Reviewed)

López CB. (2021) Virology. Chapter: "Defective Interfering Particles". Carla Saleh and Felix Rey editors. SCIENCES ISTE. John Wiley & Sons.

Moran T.M and López CB. (2009) Host Immune Response to Influenza Virus in “RNA Viruses: Host gene response to Infection” Decheng Yang, Editor. World Scientific Publishing, Vancouver, BC, Canada. 

Lopez Publications as Trainee

López CB, Yount JS, Hermesh T and Moran TM. (2006) Sendai Virus Infection Induces Efficient Adaptive Immunity Independently of Type I IFNs. J. Virol. 80:4538-4545. PMID: 16611914, PMCID: PMC1472017. PubMed link.

López CB, Yount JS and Moran TM. (2006) Minireview. TLR-independent Triggering of Dendritic Cell Maturation by Viruses. J. Virol. 80:3128-3134. PMID: 16505141, PMCID: PMC1440398. PubMed link.

Trumpfheller C, Finke JS, López CB, Moran TM, Moltedo B, Soares H, Huang Y, Schesinger S, Park CG, Nussenzweig MC, Granelli-Piperno A, Steinman RM. (2006) Intensified and Protective CD4+ T Cell Based Immunity at a Mucosal Surface Induced in Mice with Anti-dendritic Cell HIV gag Fusion Antibody Vaccine. J. Exp. Med. 203:607-617. PMCID: PMC2118242. PubMed link. 

López CB, Moltedo B, Alexopoulou L, Bonifaz L, Flavell R and Moran T (2004). TLR-Independent Induction of Dendritic Cell Maturation and Immunity by Negative Stranded RNA Viruses. J. Immunol. 173:6882-6889. PMID: 15557183. *Evaluated in the Faculty of 1000 website. PubMed link.

Silva MA, López CB, Rivertin F, Oligny L, Menezes J and Seidman E (2004). Characterization and Distribution of Colonic Dendritic Cells in Paediatric Crohn’s Disease. Inf. Bowel Dis.10:504-512. PMID: 15472509. PubMed link.

López CB, Garcia-Sastre A, Williams BRG and Moran T (2003). The Type I Interferon Pathway, but Not the Secreted Interferon, Participates in the Maturation of Dendritic cells Induced by Negative Stranded RNA Viruses. J Inf. Dis., 187:1123-1136. PMID: 12660927. PubMed link.

López CB, Moran TM, Schulman JL, and Fernandez-Sesma A (2002) Antiviral Immunity and the Role of Dendritic Cells. Int. Rev. Immunol. 21:339-353. PMID: 12486818. PubMed link.

López CB, Fernandez-Sesma A, Schulman J and Moran T (2001) Myeloid Dendritic Cells Stimulate Both Th1 and Th2 Immune Responses Depending on the Nature of the Antigen. J. Interf. Cytok. Res.21:763-773. PMID: 11576470. PubMed link.

López CB, Fernandez-Sesma A, Czelusniak S, Schulman J and Moran T (2000) A Mouse Model for immunization with Ex-Vivo Virus-Infected Dendritic Cells. Cell. Immunol. 206:107-115. PMID: 11161442. PubMed link.

López CB, Rao DT, Freiner H, Shapiro R, Marks J and Frey A (1998) Repression of Interleukin-2 mRNA Translation in Primary Human Breast Carcinoma Tumor Infiltrating Lymphocytes. Cell. Immunol. 190:141-155. PMID: 9878115. PubMed link.

López CB, Kalergis AM, Becker MI, Garbarino JA and De Ioannes AE (1998). CD8+ T Cells are the Effectors Cells of the Contact Dermatitis Induced by Urushiol in Mice and are Regulated by CD4+ T Cells. Int. Arch. Allergy and Immunol. 117:194-201. PMID: 9831807. PubMed link.

Kalergis AM, López CB, Díaz MI, Becker MI, Garbarino JA and De Ioannes AE (1997) Modulation by Clofibrate and Tetradecyl Glycidic Acid of the Contact Dermatitis Induced in Mice by an Urushiol Related Allergen 3-Pentadecyl (10-enyl) Cathecol. J. of Invest. Dermat. 108: 57-61. PMID: 8980288. PubMed link.